Introduction to Computer

Introduction of Computer

An electronic device that processes data and carries out tasks in accordance with commands is a computer. It is made up of physical parts including the CPU, memory, and storage as well as software that enables a variety of applications and operations. A vast variety of industries are powered by computers, which are essential to modern society.

Types of computer

1.Analog Computer : Analogue computers use physical characteristics such as voltage and current to calculate continuous data, making them ideal for scientific simulations, engineering, and control systems.

2.Digital Computer :  A digital computer processes discrete data by calculating with binary digits (0s and 1s), and is commonly utilized in contemporary computing for a variety of tasks with great precision and adaptability.

  • Micro Computer 
  • Mini Computer
  • Mainframe Computer
  • Super Computer

3. Hybrid Computer : A hybrid computer combines analogue and digital computer capabilities, processing continuous data via analogue components and completing sophisticated calculations via digital parts, making it appropriate for specialized scientific and industrial applications.

Computer and Latest IT Gadgets

Technology advances are driven by the latest IT devices and computers, which are always improving. Computers are multipurpose tools that are used for business, communication, entertainment, and other purposes. The most recent IT products, such as cutting-edge smartphones, tablets, wearable technology, virtual reality devices, and smart home technology, improve our daily life with convenient features.

Evolution of computer and its application

Computers have changed over time from bulky mechanical equipment to small, potent electronics. PCs made them more intimate, and the internet knit the world together. Science, finance, healthcare, and entertainment are all industries that rely heavily on computers nowadays. Technology is now vital due to the ways in which AI, IoT, and automation have changed daily life.

Generation of computer

The evolution of modern computers has been divided into numerous phases, known as generations of computers, based on the pace of technological advancement.

# Generation Duration Switching Technique Languages
1 First Generation 1945 - 1956 Vacuum Tube Machine Language
2 Second Generation 1956 - 1965 Transistor Assembly, High Level Language
3 Third Generation 1965 - 1971 Integrated Circuits (ICs) High Level Language such as Fortran, COBOL
4 Fourth Generation 1971 - 1989 High Level Language such as Python, Java Script, Php
5 Fifth Generation 1989 - Present Knowledge Information Processing System

Basics of Hardware and Software

The physical parts of a computer, such as the CPU, memory, and peripherals, are called hardware. The operating system and other software used on computers are examples of software. Software also refers to the instructions and programmes that enable tasks and run applications. They cooperate to carry out computer operations.

Hardware

Hardware refers to the actual components and devices of a computer system, such as the central processing unit (CPU), memory, storage devices, input/output devices (keyboard, mouse, monitor), and any other tangible pieces that contribute to the computer’s operation and performance.

Central Processing Unit

The main part of a computer that is in charge of carrying out computations and instructions is called the Central Processing Unit (CPU). It functions as the “brain” of the computer, processing information retrieved from memory and directing other parts. For a system to run efficiently, the CPU’s speed and performance are essential.

Generally, a CPU has three components :

1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Executes addition, subtraction, multiplication, and comparison calculations as well as other logical operations.

2. Control Unit (CU): Oversees the flow of instructions by retrieving them from memory, decoding them, and coordinating data transfer both inside and outside the CPU.

3. Memory Unit (MU) : Even when the power is off, the storage device retains its data. It comprises hardware like magnetic HDDs, flash memory SSDs, optical drives (CD/DVD), USB drives, memory cards, and magnetic tapes.

Input Devices

Data and instructions are supplied to a computer through input devices. Keyboards for typing, mouse for pointing and clicking, touchscreens for finger input, scanners for document digitization, and microphones for voice instructions are typical examples.

Output Devices

The user sees processed data on output devices. Other examples are projectors for larger presentations, speakers for audio, printers for hard copies, headphones for private sound, and monitors for visual display.

Computer Memory and Storage

During active work, the CPU needs access to data and instructions stored in computer memory, often known as RAM (Random Access Memory). For the operating system, software, files, and user data even when the power is off, storage devices like hard disc drives or solid-state drives offer non-volatile, long-term data retention.

There are two types of memory used in computer
  1. Primary Memory
  2. Secondary Memory 

Software

Software provides intelligence to the computer, while the user only works with software. It is a set of computer data and instructions. It is separated into two categories: System Software, which provides the computer’s core non-task specific operations, and Application Software, which is utilised by users to do specific activities.

Some Types Of Softwares :
  1. Application Software
  2. System Software
  3. Utility Software
  4. Open Source and Proprietary Software
  5. Mobile Apps
Application Software

Application software is created to help users with specific activities or operations. There are several types of application software, such asApplication software helps users with specialised tasks or processes. It includes a variety of sorts that are suited to certain purposes, such as productivity tools, multimedia applications, communication apps, web browsers, and others.

System Software

System software monitors and maintains computer hardware, allowing other programmes to work properly. Operating systems such as Windows, macOS, and Linux are examples, as are device drivers.

Open Source and Proprietary Software

Open Source Software (OSS) is software that makes its source code available to the public, allowing users to study, alter, and distribute it without limitations or charges.

Utility Software

It provides a variety of system maintenance and optimization tools, including as antivirus software to protect against threats, disc cleaners to clear up storage space, and backup programmes to secure essential data.

Mobile Apps

A software programme created specifically for smartphones, tablets, or other mobile devices is known as a mobile app. It provides a range of features and services that let users carry out tasks, access data, engage in games, or interact. Typically, app shops like Google Play or the Apple App Store are used to download and set up mobile apps.

Voter Helpline App

Digilocker App

Mygov App

BHIM App

Garv App

introduction of computer - online computer study

Introduction of Computer System

1 / 30

COBOL is an example of
कोबोल इसका एक उदाहरण है

2 / 30

Which is the first mechanical calculator?
पहला यांत्रिक कैलकुलेटर कौन सा है ?

3 / 30

What is the row limit of MS Excel 2019?
MS Excel 2019 की पंक्ति सीमा क्या है?

4 / 30

Which type of memory is non-volatile and retains data even when the computer is powered off?
किस प्रकार की मेमोरी गैर-वाष्पशील होती है और कंप्यूटर बंद होने पर भी डेटा बरकरार रखती है?

5 / 30

Which is the BIOS stored in ?
BIOS किसमें संग्रहित है?

6 / 30

A Winchester disc is a _.
एक Winchester डिस्क एक _____ होती है|

7 / 30

The most common pointing input device is the
सबसे कामन प्वॉइण्टिग इनपुट डिवाइस है

8 / 30

Which of the following is an example of secondary storage device?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा सेकेंडरी स्टोरेज डिवाइस का उदाहरण है?

9 / 30

Various applications and documents are displayed on the Windows desktop by?
विंडो डेस्कटॉप में विभिन्न एप्लीकेशन और डाक्यूमेंट्स किसके द्वारा दर्शाए जाते है|

10 / 30

Which of the following is an example of an output device?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा आउटपुट डिवाइस का उदाहरण है?

11 / 30

Which of the following devices can be used to input printed text?
मुद्रित पाठ को इनपुट करने के लिए निम्नलिखित में से किस उपकरण का उपयोग किया जा सकता है?

12 / 30

Which of the following is NOT one of the four major data processing functions of a computer?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा कंप्यूटर के चार प्रमुख डेटा प्रोसेसिंग कार्यों में से एक नहीं है?

13 / 30

In Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, rows are designated as _______.
माइक्रोसॉफ्ट एक्सेल स्प्रेडशीट में, पंक्तियों को _______ के रूप में निर्दिष्ट किया जाता है।

14 / 30

Which of the following is a non-volatile and random access memory?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी एक गैर-वाष्पशील और रैंडम एक्सेस मेमोरी है?

15 / 30

The stored Program concept was introdused by ........................ ?
संग्रहित प्रोग्राम अवधारणा ...................... द्वारा प्रस्तुत की गई थी?

16 / 30

Which of the following is an example of an input device?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा इनपुट डिवाइस का उदाहरण है?

17 / 30

The Recycle Bin is configured automatically to be able to store files equal to .................. of the size of your hard disk.
रीसायकल बिन आपकी हार्ड डिस्क के आकार के .................. के बराबर फ़ाइलों को संग्रहीत करने में सक्षम होने के लिए स्वचालित रूप से कॉन्फ़िगर किया गया है।

18 / 30

Which of the following is the fastest, biggest, costliest computer?
निम्नलिखित में से सबसे तेज , सबसे बड़ा , सबसे महंगा कंप्यूटर कौन-सा है ?

19 / 30

TB stands for Terabyte

टीबी का मतलब टेराबाइट है

20 / 30

Shortcut to open start menu is
स्टार्ट मेन्यू को खोलने का शॉर्टकट है

21 / 30

Which of the following is considered as the "brain" of the computer?
निम्नलिखित में से किसे कंप्यूटर का "मस्तिष्क" माना जाता है?

22 / 30

The Greater Than sign (>) exemplifies a/an _____ operator.
ग्रेटर थान चिह्न (>) एक _____ ऑपरेटर का उदाहरण देता है।

23 / 30

................... is the result produce by a computer.
................... कंप्यूटर द्वारा उत्पादित परिणाम है।

24 / 30

Which storage device provides the fastest access to data?
कौन सा स्टोरेज डिवाइस डेटा तक सबसे तेज़ पहुंच प्रदान करता है?

25 / 30

A set of system programs that controls a coordinates the operations of a computer system called?
सिस्टम प्रोग्राम का जो समूह कम्प्यूटर प्रोग्राम के संचालन नियन्त्रित और समन्वयित करता है उसे क्या कहते हैं?

26 / 30

The acronym ENIAC stands for
शब्द ENIAC का पूर्ण रूप है

27 / 30

Which of the following option is an alternate name for a combination of four bits?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा विकल्प चार बिट्स के संयोजन का एक वैकल्पिक नाम है?

28 / 30

Which of the following is a programming language?
निम्नलिखित में से क्या एक प्रोग्रामिंग भाषा है?

29 / 30

Which of the following is used for calculation work?
गणना कार्य के लिए निम्न में  किसका प्रयोग होता है ?

30 / 30

Where is the date and time available on the desktop?
तारीख और समय डेस्कटॉप पर कहा उपलब्ध होता है

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The average score is 66%

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