Introduction of Internet and WWW

Introduction

The internet connected billions of devices globally and revolutionised international communication. It’s a huge network of linked computers that exchange information. The World Wide Web (WWW), which makes information and services easily accessible to everyone, further altered the internet by offering user-friendly access to webpages, links, and multimedia content.

Basics of Computer Network

The network is divided on different bases. The main types of them are as follows : 

1. Based on Transmission Media Wide Network and Wireless Network
2. Based on Size of Network LAN, WAN, MAN
3. Based on Management Peer-to-peer and Clint - Server Network
4. Based on Connectivity Peer-to-peer and Clint - Server Network

Local area Network, LAN

In order to share data and provide access to resources, connected computers and other devices form a Local Area Network (LAN) in a specific location, such as a campus, workplace, or house.

 

Advantages of LAN

  • The communication quality is better in LAN.
  • A LAN usually has low cost, installation, expansion and maintenance.
  • You can use different topology mainly bus and ring in LAN.
  • In LAN you can run the multiple devices to share a transmission medium. 

Metropolitan area Network, MAN

A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that connects numerous LANs and covers a broader geographic area, usually a city or metropolitan area, allowing for effective data exchange and communication.

Advantages of MAN

  • The bandwidth of the connecting links, that means resources shared on the Network can be accessed extremely quikly
  • Some installation allow multiple users to share the same high speed internet connection.

Wide area Network, WAN

A wide area network (WAN) is a network that connects several local area networks (LANs) or metropolitan area networks (MANs) over vast distances, frequently spanning cities, nations, or even continents, to enable data transmission over a large region.

Advantages of WAN

1. Broad geographic coverage: WANs link far-off places, enabling businesses to interact and share resources across vast territories.

2. Sharing of resources and centralised data: WANs allow for centralised access to data, applications, and resources, which encourages effective resource use.

3. Improved collaboration: WANs make it easy for teams that are spread out geographically to share data and communicate, which promotes better cooperation and production.

Network Topology

The configuration of the connections and devices in a computer network is referred to as network topology. It outlines the connections between devices and the network’s data flow. Typical network topologies consist of:

1. Bus Topology: A central cable (bus) connects all devices. Each device receives and processes the data intended for it as it passes along the cable.

2. A star topology is used, in which every device is linked to a single hub or switch. The hub is a conduit through which data is transmitted and devices are connected.

3. Ring Topology: In a closed loop of connected devices, data only flows in one direction. Each device in the loop gets data and transfers it to the following device.

4. Mesh Topology: By connecting every device in the network to every other device, numerous redundant pathways for data transmission are created, increasing reliability.

5. Tree Topology: Devices are placed in a hierarchy, resembling a tree, with many branches attaching to a central stem. The advantages of bus and star topologies are combined.

Internet

The internet is a vast network of servers and computers that connect to one another to enable communication and information sharing. Through browsers, email, social media, and other channels, consumers can access a wide range of websites, services, and information. It has changed contemporary culture and facilitated global communication.

Concept of Internet and WWW

The internet is a sizable network of linked computers and servers that allows for cross-border communication and information exchange. The World Wide Web (WWW) and other services are supported by it as the infrastructure. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a collection of multimedia web pages and services that are available via web browsers and allow users to access information, move across hyperlinks, and interact with content on the internet. The WWW is supported by the internet, which is available to billions of users worldwide.

Applications of Internet

1. Communication: Enabling video conferencing, email, and instant messaging for worldwide connectivity.
2. Information Access: Making websites and search engines accessible to a wealth of information and resources.
3. E-commerce: The facilitation of electronic transactions for the purchase of products and services.
4. Social media: promoting social interactions and bringing people together through websites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
5. Online entertainment: Providing gaming, multimedia content, and streaming services for fun and relaxation.

Website Address and URL

When describing the location of a specific web page or resource on the internet, the phrases “website address” and “URL” (Uniform Resource Locator) are sometimes used interchangeably.

Website Address: The phrase “website address” refers more broadly to the address of a website on the internet. It normally starts with the website’s domain name and ends with a top-level domain (TLD), such as.com,.org, or.net. The website address “www.example.com” is an illustration.

A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a particular kind of website address that identifies the precise location of a website page or other online resource. It contains the domain name, the protocol (such as “http://” or “https://”), and any additional path or parameters that specify the particular

Introduction of IP Address

An IP address, also known as an Internet Protocol address, is a special numerical designation given to each connected device to a computer network that makes use of the Internet Protocol. It acts as the device’s identification number and enables precise data routing to and from the device within a network or over the internet. Because they enable devices to find and communicate with one another, IP addresses are crucial for the internet’s connectivity and efficient data transfer.

ISP and Role of ISP

1. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organisation that gives customers access to the internet and related services.

2. ISP offers a range of internet connections to connect consumers to the internet, including broadband, DSL, and wireless.

3. To identify devices on the internet and facilitate data exchange, ISPs assign special IP addresses.

4. They control and distribute bandwidth, setting the capacity and speed of data transport for each user.

5. To shield users from online dangers, ISPs provide customer service, handle technical issues, and put security measures in place.

Internet Protocol

A set of guidelines known as Internet Protocol (IP) controls the format and transmission of data packets through computer networks, including the internet. It specifies how information is divided into little packets, each of which has a source and a destination address. By ensuring that these packets are reliably routed across networks, IP enables standardized device communication and information exchange over the internet. IPv4 and IPv6 are the two primary IP versions in use today.

Modern of Connecting Internet (Hotspot, Wi-Fi, LAN Cable, Broadband, USB Tethering)

Various contemporary ways to access the internet include:

1. Hotspot: Creating a Wi-Fi hotspot using a smartphone or mobile device with a data plan to let other devices connect to the internet using the phone’s cellular data.

2. Wi-Fi: The process of joining a wireless local area network (Wi-Fi), which offers internet access via wireless routers, in a home, business, café, or other public place.

3. LAN Cable: Using an Ethernet cable to connect a device directly to a router or modem for a steady, high-speed internet connection (e.g., a computer, a gaming console).

4. Broadband: Using a cable, DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), or fiber-optic connection to connect to the internet at a fast speed.

5. USB Tethering: Using a USB connection to connect a mobile device to a computer and utilising the

Identifying and uses of IP/ MAC/ IMEI of Various Devices

A distinctive numerical identification known as an IP (Internet Protocol) address is given to each device connected to a network and enables internet-based communication between linked devices.

– Uses: Aids in data routing, makes it possible to communicate online, and locates the device online. used for networking, remote access, and internet activities.

A distinctive hardware address given to the network interface card of a device is known as a MAC (Media Access Control) address. It is globally unique and has been hardcoded by the manufacturer.
– Applications: Ethernet or Wi-Fi connections are used for local network communication. For devices to interact among themselves on the same local area network (LAN), MAC addresses are necessary.

Mobile phones and various other cellular devices are given the 15-digit IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) identification number.
– Uses: Aids in locating and verifying the identity of mobile devices using a cellular network. utilised for network security, device tracking, and banning of stolen devices.

Popular Web Browsers (Internet Explorer / Edge, Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera etc.)

Some well-known web browsers as of my most recent update in September 2021 include:

1. Google Chrome: Popular for its quickness, ease of use, and large extension ecosystem. Google developed the.

2. Mozilla Firefox: An open-source web browser with a strong emphasis on security, personalization, and privacy.

3. Microsoft Edge: based on Chromium and created by Microsoft, Edge is the replacement for Internet Explorer.

4. Apple Safari: Known for its compatibility with iOS and macOS, Apple Safari is the default online browser for Apple devices.

5. Opera: Popular for its quickness, integrated functions, and customizability options.

Exploring the Internet

Web browsing for information, social media interactions, online shopping, streaming entertainment, e-learning, virtual tours, gaming, and connecting globally are all possibilities as you explore the internet. For a satisfying and secure online experience, practise internet safety awareness and double-check your information sources.

Surfing the Web

Using a web browser to explore and navigate the internet is referred to as “surfing the web.” Users can access online material, browse other websites, conduct searches, and interact with multimedia resources including videos, photographs, and articles. Users dive into many themes, platforms, and online experiences, like riding informational waves.

Popular Search Engine

Some well-known search engines as of my most recent update in September 2021 include:

1. Google: The most popular search engine, with a sizable database of web pages and strong search algorithms.

2. Bing: Created by Microsoft, Bing provides a variety of search options, including web, picture, and video searches.

3. Yahoo: Offers news, email, and other web services in addition to search functions.

4. Baidu: A well-known search engine in China that provides services in Chinese.

5. Yandex: A well-known Russian search engine that offers web search and other services.

6. DuckDuckGo: With a privacy-focused approach, DuckDuckGo does not collect user information to provide personalised results.

7. Ask.com: Provides search options and inquiries with natural language responses.

Searching on Internet

To search an information the following steps will be followed :

  • Go to the homepage of the search engine.
  • A text box will appear on the search engine’s home page.
  • In this text box type, the word you want to search about.
  • Then click on the search, which will display the list of website related to that word.
  • Click on the link of website you want to open, from which that website will open.

Downloading Web pages

The act of preserving web page content on a local device, like a computer or smartphone, is referred to as “downloading” web pages. Web pages can be downloaded by users for a variety of purposes, including offline reading, information archiving, and access to content when an internet connection is not available. There are several ways to download web pages, including utilising browser add-ons, web scraping software, or just the built-in “Save Page” feature of the browser. When downloading and using web page content for personal use, it is crucial to abide with copyright laws and terms of service.

Printing Web pages

Users can make physical copies of the information they find on websites by printing web pages. Generally speaking, do the following to print a web page:

1. In your web browser, open the website you wish to print.
2. In the top-right corner of the browser window, select the three dots menu (or another browser-specific menu).
3. Either choose “Print” from the menu or press the keyboard shortcut (Ctrl + P on a PC or Command + P on a Mac).
4. A print dialogue box with options for changing the paper size, orientation, and quantity of copies will show up.
5. To begin printing the website, click the “Print” option.

Internet, Networking and Cyber Security

Internet, Networking and Cyber Security

1 / 30

A firewall is hardware or software that acts as a barrier between a trusted network and an untrusted network.
फ़ायरवॉल एक हार्डवेयर या सॉफ़्टवेयर है जो एक विश्वसनीय नेटवर्क और एक अविश्वसनीय नेटवर्क के बीच बाधा के रूप में कार्य करता है।

2 / 30

Which type of attack involves tricking individuals into revealing their sensitive information?
किस प्रकार के हमले में व्यक्तियों को उनकी संवेदनशील जानकारी प्रकट करने के लिए बरगलाना शामिल है?

3 / 30

Ransomware is a type of malware that encrypts files on a victim's computer and demands payment for their release.
रैंसमवेयर एक प्रकार का मैलवेयर है जो पीड़ित के कंप्यूटर पर फाइलों को एन्क्रिप्ट करता है और उनके रिहाई के लिए भुगतान की मांग करता है।

4 / 30

What is the primary function of an antivirus software?
एंटीवायरस सॉफ़्टवेयर का प्राथमिक कार्य क्या है?

5 / 30

What does the term "IP address" stand for in networking?
नेटवर्किंग में "IP पता" शब्द का क्या अर्थ है?

6 / 30

What is the term for the unauthorized access of information from a computer system?
कंप्यूटर सिस्टम से जानकारी की अधिकृत पहुंच के लिए किस शब्द का प्रयोग किया जाता है?

7 / 30

Which device is used to connect multiple computers in a network?
नेटवर्क में कई कंप्यूटरों को कनेक्ट करने के लिए कौन सा उपकरण प्रयोग किया जाता है?

8 / 30

DNS (Domain Name System) translates domain names into IP addresses, facilitating the routing of internet traffic.
DNS (डोमेन नाम प्रणाली) डोमेन नाम को आईपी पतों में अनुवादित करता है, इंटरनेट ट्रैफिक के मार्गनिर्देशन को सुगम बनाते हुए।

9 / 30

Cyberbullying involves using electronic communication to harass, intimidate, or threaten others.
साइबर बुलींग अन्यों को परेशान करने, धमकाने या डराने के लिए इलेक्ट्रॉनिक संचार का उपयोग करना है।

10 / 30

Phishing is a form of cyber attack where attackers attempt to deceive individuals into providing sensitive information such as passwords or credit card numbers.
फिशिंग एक प्रकार का साइबर हमला है जिसमें हमलावर व्यक्तियों को पासवर्ड या क्रेडिट कार्ड नंबर जैसी संवेदनशील जानकारी प्रदान करने के लिए धोखा देने का प्रयास करते हैं।

11 / 30

What does the acronym "ISP" stand for in the context of networking?
नेटवर्किंग के संदर्भ में "ISP" शब्द का क्या अर्थ है?

12 / 30

What is the purpose of a router in a network?
किसी नेटवर्क में राउटर का उद्देश्य क्या है?

13 / 30

What is a brute force attack?
क्रूर बल का हमला क्या है?

14 / 30

What does the term "LAN" stand for in networking?
नेटवर्किंग में "LAN" शब्द का क्या अर्थ है?

15 / 30

Spyware is a type of malware designed to track and monitor a user's activities without their consent.
स्पाईवेयर एक प्रकार का मैलवेयर है जो उपयोगकर्ता की संतुष्टि के बिना उनके गतिविधियों का ट्रैक और मॉनिटर करने के लिए डिज़ाइन किया गया है।

16 / 30

What is the term used to describe the process of converting data into a secret code to prevent unauthorized access?
अनधिकृत पहुंच को रोकने के लिए डेटा को गुप्त कोड में परिवर्तित करने की प्रक्रिया का वर्णन करने के लिए किस शब्द का उपयोग किया जाता है?

17 / 30

What does IoT stand for?
IoT का मतलब क्या है?

18 / 30

What does URL stand for?
यूआरएल का मतलब क्या है?

19 / 30

What is the term for a software program that replicates itself and spreads to other computers over a network?
एक सॉफ़्टवेयर कार्यक्रम के लिए कौन सा शब्द है जो अपनी प्रतिलिपि बनाता है और नेटवर्क पर अन्य कंप्यूटरों को फैलाता है?

20 / 30

What is a DDoS attack?
DDoS हमला क्या है?

21 / 30

What is the main function of DNS (Domain Name System)?
DNS (डोमेन नाम प्रणाली) का मुख्य कार्य क्या है?

22 / 30

What is the purpose of a proxy server?
प्रॉक्सी सर्वर का उद्देश्य क्या है?

23 / 30

What is the purpose of a VPN (Virtual Private Network)?
वीपीएन (वर्चुअल प्राइवेट नेटवर्क) का उद्देश्य क्या है?

24 / 30

Biometric authentication methods are less secure than traditional password-based methods.
बायोमेट्रिक प्रमाणीकरण विधियां पारंपरिक पासवर्ड आधारित विधियों से कम सुरक्षित हैं।

25 / 30

Which protocol is used for file sharing?
फाइल शेयरिंग के लिए किस प्रोटोकॉल का उपयोग किया जाता है?

26 / 30

Cybersecurity refers to the protection of computer systems, networks, and data from unauthorized access or attacks.
साइबर सुरक्षा अनधिकृत पहुंच या हमलों से कंप्यूटर सिस्टम, नेटवर्क, और डेटा की सुरक्षा का संदर्भ है।

27 / 30

What is the purpose of a firewall in network security?
नेटवर्क सुरक्षा में फ़ायरवॉल का क्या उद्देश्य है?

28 / 30

Which of the following is a characteristic of a DDoS attack?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन DDoS हमले की विशेषता है?

29 / 30

What is the term used for the practice of hiding messages or information within another file, message, or media?
किसी अन्य फ़ाइल, संदेश या मीडिया में संदेशों या सूचनाओं को छिपाने के अभ्यास के लिए किस शब्द का उपयोग किया जाता है?

30 / 30

What is the full form of HTTP?
HTTP का फुल फॉर्म क्या है?

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