Introduction Of Operating System

Operating System

An operating system (OS) is software that manages computer hardware and software resources, allowing for human interaction and application execution. It offers an efficient framework for programmes to execute on, manages memory and file systems, and promotes communication between hardware and software components, enabling seamless and organized computing activities.

Functions Of Operating System

An operating system’s functions include the following:

1. Process Management : The scheduling and execution of processes or programmed to ensure that CPU resources are used efficiently.

2. Memory Management : Memory allocation and de-allocation to processes, with the goal of optimizing memory consumption.

3. File System Administration : File and directory organization and access on storage devices.

4. Device Management : Controlling and communicating with physical devices such as printers and keyboards.

5. User Interface : Allowing users to engage with the computer system via graphical or command-line interfaces.

Types Of Operating System

Operating systems are classified into numerous varieties, Here are several examples:

Single-User, Single-Tasking OS :A Single-User, Single-Tasking OS allows a single user to complete a single task at a time without multitasking. Users do activities consecutively, as was common in early systems such as MS-DOS.

Single-User, Multi-Tasking OS A single user does activities sequentially without multitasking in a Single-User, Single-Tasking OS. Early operating systems, such as MS-DOS, worked in this manner.

Multi-User OS : Tasks are completed sequentially without multitasking in a Single-User, Single-Tasking OS. Early operating systems, such as MS-DOS, worked in this manner.

Real-Time OS : A Real-Time OS is intended for time-critical applications that require rapid reaction to events. Low-latency performance is widely employed in industrial control, robotics, and aircraft.

Distributed OS : Distributed operating systems operate as a single system on networked computers, allowing for resource sharing, load balancing, fault tolerance, and scalability. Amoeba and distributed UNIX are two examples.

Operating System For Mobile & Laptop

Commonly used Operating System for Desktop are :

  • Windows : Microsoft Windows is one of the most popular desktop operating systems in the world, including versions such as Windows 10 and Windows 11.
  • macOS : Developed by Apple Inc., macOS is the operating system that is only used on Apple Macintosh computers.
  • Linux : Open-source software and configurable environments are popular among users who favor Linux distributions such as Ubuntu, Fedora, and Linux Mint.
  • Chrome OS : Google’s Chrome OS runs Chromebooks, which are lightweight notebooks built largely for web-based work.

Commonly used Operating System for Mobile are :

  • Android : Developed by Google, Android is the most extensively used mobile operating system in the world, powering a wide range of smartphones and tablets.
  • iOS : Developed by Apple Inc., iOS is unique to iPhones and iPads and is noted for its user-friendly interface and integration with Apple’s ecosystem.
  • HarmonyOS : Developed by Huawei, HarmonyOS is gaining popularity as an alternative to Android after trade constraints hampered access to Google’s services.
  • KaiOS : Designed for feature phones and low-end smartphones, KaiOS delivers fundamental smartphone functionalities in low-cost devices.

Language Processor

A language processor, often known as a compiler or interpreter, is a piece of software that converts high-level programming language source code into machine code or intermediate code that a computer can execute. It consists of three major components:

1. Compiler : Converts all source code at once into machine code, resulting in an executable file that may be executed separately.

2. Interpreter : Translates and runs the source code line by line or statement by statement, without producing a standalone executable.

3. Assembler : This programme converts assembly language code into machine code and is commonly used for low-level programming.

User Interface for Desktop and Laptop

A graphical desktop environment, Start menu (Windows) or Dock (macOS), taskbar (Windows) or menu bar (macOS), windows, icons, File Explorer (Windows) or Finder (macOS), notification area, control panel (Windows) or system preferences (macOS), and multi-touch gestures (laptops) are all part of the user interface for desktop and laptop computers.

Task bar

The taskbar is a graphical user interface element that appears at the bottom of Windows and macOS displays. It displays open apps, system alerts, the time, and provides access to the Start menu or Dock.

Icons and Shortcuts

Icons and shortcuts on a computer’s desktop are graphical representations of files, directories, and programmes. Icons serve as visual clues for easy identification, whilst shortcuts function as connections for quick access to files or programmes. For effective navigation and job execution, users may interact with icons by clicking, dragging, or organising them.

Running on Application

Running an application entails putting the software programme into action and making it functional and available to users. Users may engage with an application’s features, complete activities, and access the intended functionality while it is running, increasing productivity and facilitating different computer processes.

Click on Start - All Programs - Accessories - Notepad

Click on Start - All Programs - Accessories - Paint

Click on Start - All Programs - Accessories - Calculator

Operating System Simple Setting

The operating system settings might differ based on whatever OS you are running. However, the following are some typical options present in most operating systems:

Using Mouse and Changing its Propertis

Sure! Here’s a quick tutorial on how to operate a mouse and change its attributes in Windows 10:

Using the Mouse:

1. Plug in your mouse to your computer.
2. Move the pointer by moving the mouse on a level surface.
3. Use the left mouse button to choose and interact, and the right mouse button to access context menus.
4. Scroll up and down using the scroll wheel.

Changing the Mouse Properties:

1. Go to the Windows Settings app (Start > Gear icon).
2. Navigate to “Devices” and choose “Mouse” from the left menu.
3. Select “Additional mouse options.”
4. Make changes in the “Buttons,” “Pointers,” “Pointer Options,” “Wheel,” “Hardware,” and “Driver” sections.
5. Save the changes by clicking “OK”.

Changing System Date and Time

1. Right-click on the taskbar clock (bottom-right corner of the screen).

2. From the context menu, choose “Adjust date/time”.

3. The current date and time settings are displayed in the Date & Time settings box.

4. To alter the date, click on the current date and then use the calendar to pick the desired date.

5. To change the time, click on the current time and alter the hour and minutes with the arrow buttons. You may also enter in the required value by clicking on the hour or minutes.

7. Scroll down and click on the current time zone if you wish to change it. Then, from the drop-down list, choose the appropriate time zone.

8. Toggle on the “Set time automatically” button if you like automatic date and time.

9. Toggle on the “Set time zone automatically” switch if you want automated time zone detection.

Close the Date & Time Configuration window. The changed date and time settings will take effect right away.

Changing Display Properties

Follow these procedures to alter the display parameters in Windows 10:

1. Right-click on the Desktop : and select: Locate an empty spot on your desktop screen and right-click it to bring up the context menu.

2. Click on “Display settings”: In the context menu, select “Display settings.” This will bring up the Display Options window.

3. Adjust Display Properties : You may customise the following display properties in the Display settings window:

  • Resolution : Select the desired screen resolution for your monitor from the “Resolution” drop-down menu. Higher resolutions provide more screen area as well as better visuals. 
  • Orientation : Select your display’s orientation (landscape, portrait, etc.) from the drop-down option under “Orientation.” Choose the one that corresponds to the physical configuration of your display.
  • Scale and Layout : Change the size of text, applications, and other objects on the screen using the slider under “Change the size of text, apps, and other items.” This is useful if you find that the things are too tiny to read comfortably.

Apply Changes : Once you’ve made the adjustments you want, click the “Apply” button to save the new display settings. If you wish to preserve the changes, select “Keep changes” if you like them, or “Revert” if you want to revert to the old settings.

Choose the Display Settings : When you’re through adjusting the display settings, simply dismiss the window by clicking the “X” button in the upper-right corner.

File and Folder Management

The process of organising and managing files and folders on a computer or other storage device is referred to as file and folder management. Effective file and folder administration is required to have a clean and efficient storage system.

Using File Explorer in Windows 10

In Windows 10, File Explorer is the primary file management application, enabling users to explore and manage files and folders on their computer. Here’s a step-by-step walkthrough on how to use File Explorer with Windows 10:

Using the File Explorer :  By hitting the Windows key + E on your keyboard, you may access File Explorer. You can also locate it in the Start menu or by clicking on the File Explorer icon on the taskbar (it looks like a folder).

Pane of Navigation : File Explorer’s navigation window is positioned on the left side. It gives you rapid access to frequently used sites like as rapid Access, This PC (which displays your discs), Network, and others.

Simple Access: Quick Access folders and files are those that are often visited. Folders may be pinned to Quick Access for quick access.

This computer: This PC displays all of your computer’s drives (local discs), devices, and network locations.

Examining Files and Folders : Click on a disc or folder to open it and examine its contents in the right-hand main window.
To browse within a folder, double-click on it. To go through your folder history, use the back and forward buttons in the upper left.

Actions on Files and Folders : Right-click a file or folder to bring up a context menu with options like Open, Copy, Cut, Paste, Delete, Rename, and more. The Home tab on the File Explorer ribbon, which shows at the top, may also be used to execute basic file operations.

Looking for Files : To find files and folders by name, use the search box in the upper right corner of File Explorer. Just get started.

Making New Folders and Files : Using the “New Folder” or “New Item” buttons on the Home tab, you may create new folders or files.

Sorting and categorising : You may sort and arrange files and folders on the View tab by different criteria (name, date, size, etc.).

File Specifications : Right-click a file or folder and select “Properties” to get details about the object, including as size, location, and rights.

Dropping and Dragging : Drag and drop files and folders from one area to another within File Explorer to conveniently relocate them.

Create a New Folder

Here are the quick methods to creating a new folder in Windows 10 File Explorer:

  • 1. Launch File Explorer (Windows + E)
  •  Go to the place where you want the folder to be created.
  • Right-click on the location’s empty space.
  • From the context menu, choose “New”.
  • Select “Folder.”
  • Give the new folder a name and hit Enter.

Types Of File Extension

File extensions are used to identify the type or format of a file on an operating system. They are often represented as a dot followed by a few letters, such as “.txt” for text files. Different file extensions are supported by various operating systems. Here are some typical file extensions found on various operating systems.

      1. Text Files :

  • .txt: Plain text file
  • .doc, .docx: Microsoft Word document
  • .rtf: Rich Text Format
  • .odt: OpenDocument Text (used by LibreOffice, OpenOffice)

      2. Spreadsheets :

  • .xls, .xlsx: Microsoft Excel spreadsheet
  • .ods: OpenDocument Spreadsheet (used by LibreOffice, OpenOffice)

      3. Presentations :

  • .ppt, .pptx: Microsoft PowerPoint presentation
  • .odp: OpenDocument Presentation (used by LibreOffice, OpenOffice)

       4.  Images :

  • .jpg, .jpeg: JPEG image
  • .png: Portable Network Graphics
  • .gif: Graphics Interchange Format
  • .bmp: Bitmap image
  • .svg: Scalable Vector Graphics

       5. Audio :

  • .mp3: MPEG audio layer III
  • .wav: Waveform Audio File Format
  • .flac: Free Lossless Audio Codec

     6. Video :

  • .mp4: MPEG-4 video format
  • .avi: Audio Video Interleave
  • .mkv: Matroska Video

      7. Compressed Files :

  • .zip: Compressed ZIP archive
  • .rar: RAR compressed archive
  • .tar.gz: Compressed tarball with gzip compression

      8. Executables :

  • .exe: Windows executable file
  • .app: macOS application package
  • .deb: Debian Linux package
  • .apk: Android application package

      9. Web-related :

  • .html: Hypertext Markup Language file
  • .css: Cascading Style Sheets
  • .js: JavaScript file
  • .php: PHP script

      10. Databases :

  • .db: Generic database file
  • .sqlite: SQLite database file

Operating System

1 / 30

Name of the browser present with Windows – 10? (Important Operating System MCQs)
Windows 10 के साथ मौजूद ब्राउज़र का नाम क्या है ?

2 / 30

Which among the following is responsible for finding and loading operating system Into RAM?
निम्न में से कौन ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम को रैम में सर्च एवं लोड करने के लिए उत्तरदायी है?

3 / 30

GUI stands for
जीयूआई का पूर्ण रूप है

4 / 30

Computer system consists of – (Important Operating System MCQs)
कंप्यूटर सिस्टम शामिल करता है –

5 / 30

Which of the following is an example of system software?
निम्न में से कोनसा सिस्टम सॉफ्टवेयर का उदाहरण है ?

6 / 30

What is the role of the kernel in an operating system?
किसी ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम में कर्नेल की क्या भूमिका है?

7 / 30

Which file extension is used for binary files?
बाइनरी फाइलों के लिए कौन-सा फाइल एक्सटेंशन प्रयोग किया जाता है?

8 / 30

Which of the following is not based on UNIX?
इनमें से कोनसा UNIX आधारित नहीं है ?

9 / 30

The collection of related files are called ____________ ?
सम्बंधित फाइलों के संग्रह ____________ को कहते है ?

10 / 30

Which shortcut key is used to open the start menu in the Windows operating system?
विंडोज ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम में स्टार्ट मेनू को open करने की short cut key निम्न में से क्या है ?

11 / 30

Which of the following is responsible for managing the computer's memory?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन कंप्यूटर की मेमोरी को प्रबंधित करने के लिए जिम्मेदार है?

12 / 30

Linux Kernel was invented by
लिनक्स कर्नल द्वारा अविष्कार किया गया था –

13 / 30

What is the purpose of virtual memory in an operating system?
किसी ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम में वर्चुअल मेमोरी का उद्देश्य क्या है?

14 / 30

Where do the time and date appear on the desktop? (Important Operating System MCQs)
डेस्कटॉप पर समय और दिनांक कहा दिखाई देता है ?

15 / 30

Which command is used to print a file in Unix? (Important Operating System MCQs)
Unix में किसी फाइल को प्रिंट करने के लिए किस कमांड का प्रयोग होता है ?

16 / 30

What is the primary function of an operating system?
ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम का प्राथमिक कार्य क्या है?

17 / 30

Linux is a ………………. and ………………….. operating system –
लिनक्स एक…………………..और……………………..ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम है –

18 / 30

Screen that comes on when you turn on your computer that shows all the icons is called
कम्प्यूटर के आरम्भ होने पर सभी आइकन्स को दिखाने वाली स्क्रीन ............................ कहते हैं।

19 / 30

Which of the following is freeware ? (Important Operating System MCQs)
निम्न में से फ्रीवेयर कोनसा है ?

20 / 30

Which of the following Windows does not have a Start Button? (Important Operating System MCQs)
निम्न में से किस विंडोज में Start Button नहीं दिया गया है ?

21 / 30

Which one of the following does not fall under the category of operating system?
निम्न में से कोनसा एक ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम की श्रेणी में नहीं आता है ?

22 / 30

The top most bar of every windows application is
प्रत्येक विण्डोज एप्लीकेशन में सबसे ऊपर कौन-सा बार होता है?

23 / 30

The most popular computer operating system in use today is- (Important Operating System MCQs)
आज कल सबसे लोकप्रिय कंप्यूटर ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम उपयोग में है –

24 / 30

Which command is used to copy files?
निम्नलिखित में से किस कमाण्ड का प्रयोग फाइल कॉपी करने लिए होता है?

25 / 30

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a distributed operating system?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सी वितरित ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम की विशेषता नहीं है?

26 / 30

Which of the following is an example of a mobile operating system?
निम्नलिखित में से कौन सा मोबाइल ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम का उदाहरण है?

27 / 30

Who owns the monopoly of Windows – 10 software? (Important Operating System MCQs)
Windows – 10 software के स्वामित्व (Owned) का एकाधिकार किसके पास है ?

28 / 30

What is done with the help of a folder?
फोल्डर के द्वारा आप क्या कर सकते हैं?

29 / 30

Why is the start button used in Windows OS?
Windows OS में स्टार्ट बटन का उपयोग क्यों किया जाता है ?

30 / 30

What is the role of a device driver in an operating system?
किसी ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम में डिवाइस ड्राइवर की क्या भूमिका होती है?

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