Introduction of Computer

Introduction of Computer

A computer is an Electronic device that reads data and processes to perform tasks. It’s made up of physical parts e.g. a CPU, monitor, keyboard, memory, storage, etc. There is much software also installed in it to provide instructions to the computer hardware.
Computers are basic devices for modern life and are also necessary for a wide range of industries.

Types of computer

There are two bases on which we can define the types of computers. We will discuss the type of computers on the basis of size and data handling capabilities

Computers are mainly categorized into three types

  1. Analog Computers
  2. Digital Computers
  3. Hybrid Computers

1. Analog Computer

 Analog computers calculate continuous data using physical qualities such as voltage and current, making them perfect for analytical-based exercises, engineering, and control systems.
Here are some of the examples –





2. Digital Computer


A digital computer processes separate information by calculating with binary digits (0s and 1s) and is commonly utilized in modern computing for a wide range of activities requiring accuracy and flexibility.

  1. The Microcomputer
  2. Mini Computer
  3. mainframe computer
  4. The Supercomputer

2.1 The Micro Computer

A microcomputer is a complete computer of a small size, designed to be used by one person at a time. A microcomputer is generally known as a personal computer (PC), It is based on a single-chip microprocessor. 
Examples of Microcomputer –
introduction of computer - online computer study




Gaming Console

2.2 Mini Computer

A Mini computer is a multi-user computer smaller in size than a mainframe, designed to be used by many people at the same time. Usually, it’s used in small offices and computer labs where all the terminals are connected to a single CPU.
Examples of Minicomputers are – CII Mitra 15, IBM midrange computers, Hewlett-Packard HP 3000 series and HP 2100 series etc.

2.3 Mainframe Computer

Mainframe computers are high-performance computers that can process billions of transactions at a time, A lot of devices can connect with these types of computers for tasks that require reliability, speed, and security. Mainly used for bulk data processing, Large-scale transaction processing, and managing large organizations.
Examples of Mainframe computers are – IBM z16, IBM System z9, HITAC S-3800

2.4 Super Computer

The Supercomputer is exceptional in terms of performance. Supercomputers operate at extremely high speeds relative to all other computers. They are the most advanced & fastest computers for handling large databases and performing resource-intensive calculations, that general-purpose computers can’t handle. usually, they are used for Nuclear fusion, Weather forecasting, Space programs, etc.
Note – India’s first supercomputer is PARAM 8000.
Examples of Supercomputers – Frontier, PARAM 8000, CDC 6600, IBM 7030, etc.

3. Hybrid Computer

A hybrid computer combines analog and digital computer abilities collecting continuous data through analog components and performing complicated calculations through digital components, making it suitable for specific scientific and commercial uses.
Here are some of the examples of Hybrid Computers –


ECG Machine

CT Scan

Ultra Sound Machine

Charecterstics of computers

  • Speed

    A computer works with much higher speed and accuracy compared to humans while performing mathematical calculations. Computers can process millions (1,000,000) of instructions per second.

  • Accuracy

    Computers perform calculations with 100% accuracy. Errors may occur due to data inconsistency or inaccuracy.

  • Diligence

    A computer can perform millions of tasks or calculations with the same consistency and accuracy. It doesn’t feel any fatigue or lack of concentration.

  • Versatility

    Versatility refers to the capability of a computer to perform different kinds of works with same accuracy and efficiency.

  • Reliability

    A computer is reliable as it gives consistent result for similar set of data i.e., if we give same set of input any number of times, we will get the same result.

  • Automation

    Computer performs all the tasks automatically i.e. it performs tasks without manual intervention.

  • Memory

    A computer has built-in memory called primary memory where it stores data. Secondary storage are removable devices such as CDs, pen drives, etc., which are also used to store data.

Computer and Latest IT Gadgets

The new age is full of gadgets that always help humans for a better life, gadgets can be used for business, communication, entertainment, and other purposes.
The latest IT items, such as modern smartphones, tablets, wearable technology, virtual reality devices, and smart home technologies, make everyday life easier.

Evolution of computer and its application

Computers have changed from as big mechanical devices to small but powerful devices. PCs made them smaller, and the internet connected across the world. Today, computers are used mostly in science, banking, health care, and entertainment. Because of the ways in which AI, IoT, and technology have changed daily life, technology is now important.

Generation of computer

Based on the level of technical development, the evolution of modern computers has been divided into multiple periods known as computer generations.

# Generation Duration Switching Techniqus Language
First Generation
1945 - 1956
Vacuum Tube
Machine Language
Second Generation
1956 - 1965
Third Generation
1965 - 1976
Integrated Circuits (ICs)
High Level Language such as COBOL, C, C++, JAVA
Fourth Generation
1971 - 1989
Low Level Language such as Python, Java Script, PHP
Fifth Generation
1989 - Present
Artificial Intelligence
Knowledge Information Processing System


computer hardware is “any physical parts or components that contribute to a computer system” such as CPU, storage devices, input/output devices (keyboard, mouse, monitor), and any other physical parts that contribute to the computer’s operation and performance, are referred to as hardware.

There are two types of Hardware

1. Internal Hardware

Parts which are installed inside the case of a computer, Internal hardware components are essential to the operation  of a computer. such as RAM, Processor, SMPS, Mother board etc.

# Preview Name Details
Switched-mode power supply is an electronic power supply that convert electrical power efficiently.
Central Processing Unit is responsible for all performance and events in computer it is also called brain of computer.
Graphics processing unit, a specialized processor originally designed to accelerate graphics rendering for gameplay
Random access memory is short term memory used by CPU for processing
Hard Disk
Hard Disk is a secondary type of memory for storing files in computer.
Mother Board
A motherboard is the main printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer. its backbone connectivity point, through which all components and external peripherals connect.

2. External Hardware

Hardware that is used outside the case of a computer, usually known as peripheral devices some of them are used for input some for output. such as a Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, etc.

# Preview Name Details
Most common input device for typing and writing in computer. it have many different types of keys e.g. number, alphabets, function & operational keys.
It is a pointing device for point in screen. user can provide the instruction easily on non-touchable device with mouse.
Printer are used to producing output on a hard copy, there many types of printer in terms of printing quality sandpaper size such as Laser printer, Plotter, inkjet Printer etc.
Most common output device where we can see all the information which are working on the computer.
A camera for a computer can be used for video conferencing, video recording etc.
Spiker is an output device for sound which you can process sounds e.g. plying music


When the user only connects with software, the software offers understanding to the device. It is a collection of computer data and instructions. It is divided into two categories: System Software, which provides the computer’s important non-task-specific functions, and Application Software, which is used by users to do specific tasks.

Some Types Of Software:
  1. Application Software
  2. System Software
  3. Utility Software
  4. Mobile Apps 
  5. Open Source and Proprietary Software

1. Application Software

A computer program that helps users to perform specific work is known as application software. this software is used for production, creativity, or communication. application software is also known as End-user software or productivity applications.
Examples – MS Word, Teams, Google Chrome, Video Editor, etc.

2. System Software

System software tracks and cares for computer hardware so that other programs can run properly. System software manages is works as a coordinator between the user and hardware. Operating systems like Windows, macros, and Linux are examples of System Software’s.
Example – Microsoft Windows, Linux, Android, Device Drivers.

3. Utility Software

It gives a number of system service and preservation tools like antivirus software to protect against dangers, disc cleaners to clear up storage space, and backup software to save important files.
Example- Disk Clean up, Firewall, Network, System Diagnosis.

4. Mobile Apps

A mobile app is a software program made mainly for smartphones, tablets, or other mobile devices. It offers a variety of tools and services that help users complete tasks, collect data, play games, and communicate.  Google Play or the Apple App Store are generally used to download and install mobile apps.
Examples- Digi Locker, My Gov Umang App Arogya Setu App.

5. Open Source Software

Open Source Software (OSS) is software that makes its source code available to the public and allows users to study, modify, and distribute it openly. Proprietary Software is free to use but source code is not available to the public.
Example – LibraCalc, LibraWritter, VLC, Linux, Mozilla Firefox

Central Processing Unit

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the main part of a computer which is responsible for doing calculations and receiving instructions. It works like the “brain” of the computer. it collects data from memory and controls the other parts. The speed and performance of the CPU play an important role in a computer’s performance.

A CPU has three parts:

  1. Arithmetic Logic Unit
  2. Central Unit
  3. Memory Unit
Parts of CPU - introduction of computer

1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Does addition, subtraction, multiplication, and comparison calculations, in addition to many other logical calculations.

2. Central Unit (CU)

Controls the flow of instructions by collecting them from memory, processing them, and arranging data transfer both within and outside the CPU.

3. Memory Unit (MU)

The storage device maintains its data even when the power is switched off. It includes magnetic hard drives, flash memory SSDs, optical drives (CD/DVD), USB drives, memory cards, and magnetic tapes. HDDs, flash memory SSDs, optical drives (CD/DVD), USB drives, memory cards, and magnetic tapes are all examples of hard disc drives.

Input Devices

Input devices provide data and instructions to computers. Examples include keyboards for typing, mouse for pointing and clicking, touchscreens for finger input, scanners for document digitalization, and microphones for voice instructions.

Output Devices

On output devices, the user receives processed data. Other examples of output devices include projectors for larger presentations, audio speakers, printers for hard copies, headphones for private sound, and graphical monitors.